Name: William Gunawan
Instructor: Tri Djoko Wahjono
1. Define functional form, simple list, bound variable and referential transparency.
– Functional form : one that either takes one or more functions as parameters or yields a function as its result.
Simple list : A list that does not include sublist.
Bound variable : A bound variable is a variable which never changes in the expression after being bound to an actual parameter value at the time evaluation of the lambda expressions begin.
Referential transparency : A state where execution of function always produces the same result when given the same parameters.
2. What does a lambda expression specify?
The predicate function is often given as a lambda expression, which in ML is defined exactly like a function, except with the fn reserved word, instead of fun, and of course the lambda expression is nameless.
3. What data types were parts of the original LISP ?
– atoms and lists
4. In what common data structure are LISP lists normally stored ?
– As linked list structure in which each node has two pointers.
5. Explain why QUOTE is needed for a parameter that is a data list.
To avoid evaluating a parameter, it is first given as a parameter to the primitive function QUOTE, which simply returns it without change.
6. What is a simple list?
A list which membership of a given atom in a given list that does not include sublists.
7. What does the abbreviation REPL stand for?
REPL stand for read-evaluate-print loop.
8. What are the three parameters to IF ?
– a predicate expression, a then expression, and else expression.
11. What are the two forms of DEFINE?
The simplest form of DEFINE is one used to bind a name to the value of an expression. This form is
(DEFINE symbol expression)
The general form of such a DEFINE is
(DEFINE (function_name parameters)
13. Why are CAR and CDR so named?
The names of the CAR and CDR functions are peculiar at best. The origin of these names lies in the first implementation of LISP, which was on an IBM 704 computer. The 704’s memory words had two fields, named decrement and address, that were used in various operand addressing strategies. Each of
these fields could store a machine memory address. The 704 also included two machine instructions, also named CAR (contents of the address part of a register) and CDR (contents of the decrement part of a register), that extracted the associated fields. It was natural to use the two fields to store the two pointers
of a list node so that a memory word could neatly store a node. Using these conventions, the CAR and CDR instructions of the 704 provided efficient list selectors. The names carried over into the primitives of all dialects of LISP.
18. What is tail recursion? Why is it important to define functions that use recursion to specify repetition to be tail recursive?
A function is tail recursive if its recursive call is the last operation in the function. This means that the return value of the recursive call is the return value of the nonrecursive call to the function. It is important to specify repetition to be tail recursive because it is more efficient(increase the efficiency).
30. What does partial evaluation mean ?
– The function is evaluated with actual parameters for one or more of the leftmost formal parameters.
31. Define reader macros.
– A textual notation introduced by dispatch on one or two characters that defines special-purpose syntax